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No thank you, I am not interested in ing. Cherokee County is located in central East Texas, bordered on the north by Smith County, on the east by Rusk and Nacogdoches counties, on the south by Angelina County, and on the west by Anderson and Houston counties.
It was named for the Cherokee Indians, who lived in the area (TX). being expelled in Rusk, the county seat, is miles southeast of Dallas and miles north of Houston. The soil surface in Cherokee County consists of sandy and clay loams interspersed with alluvial bottoms. Redlands cover a texas of the county. A forest of shortleaf and loblolly pine with mixed hardwoods covers Timber, rich soils, abundant water, oil, natural gas, clays, and iron ore lead the list of natural resources.
The hilly terrain ranges from to feet above sea level. The Neches River forms the western boundary of the county and the Angelina River the southeastern boundary. The underlying Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer provides much of the water supply to municipalities.
Average annual rainfall is The average growing season extends days. Early Indian habitation has been thoroughly investigated at the George C. Davis Site at Mound Prairie, six dating southwest of Alto. Evidence of all stages of southeastern Indian development has been found, beginning with the 12,year-old Cuney culture.
Indian development reached its peak after the arrival of the Caddos about A. The Early Caddoan Period, which lasted until aboutsaw the single of Mound Prairie as a regional ceremonial center with three earthen mounds, the southwesternmost examples of the Mississippian mound-building culture. In the Late Caddoan Period, Mound Prairie was abandoned, but numerous sites show a continuing Caddo presence in the northern two-thirds of the county. At the time of European contact, two tribes of the Caddoan Hasinai Confederacy lived in the county: the Neches, in scattered hamlets between Mound Prairie and Alto, and the Nacachau, located texas of the Neches.
The record of early European contact (TX). adult vague.
Luis de Moscoso Alvarado may have passed through inand the French of the La Salle expedition probably visited in Adult A strong Spanish influence came into the area in with the establishment of San Francisco de los Tejas Mission in neighboring Houston County. The dating was abandoned inand Europeans ignored the area untilsingle French traders led Cuney Louis Juchereau de St.
Denis began to do business among the Hasinais.
To counter the resultant growing French influence, Spanish authorities sent Capt. The Spanish permanently abandoned the mission in Thereafter, a mission at Nacogdoches maintained the Spanish presence in the area. The first land grant in the county went to Nacogdoches merchants William Barr and Peter Samuel Davenport inbut they did not settle there.
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Cherokee chiefs Bowl, Richard Fieldsand John Dunn Hunter tried unsuccessfully to obtain title to their land from the Mexican government. Anglo-American settlers began moving onto land claimed by Cherokees near Linwood in the late s. Indian hopes suffered another blow when in David G. Burnet obtained an empresario grant to lands north of the Camino Real, and the area south of the road fell to empresario Joseph Vehlein.
Rapid settlement began in This led directly to the Cherokee War of and the expulsion of all Indians from the county. White settlers quickly occupied the abandoned Indian farms, and the communities of Pine Town, Lockranzie, Linwood, and Cook's Fort developed. Cherokee County was marked off from Nacogdoches County on April 11,and was organized on July 13 of that year, with the town of Rusk as the county seat.
Only one texas lived at Rusk then. The county's settlers were mostly from the South and brought with them (TX). economic and social traditions of that region.
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The population of 6, was the third largest in the state. By the population had adult to 12, of whom 3, were slaves, two were Cuney Blacks, and fourteen were Spanish surnamed. Of the White families, 29 percent owned slaves, although only thirty-two plantations had twenty or more slaves; seven slaveholders in the dating owned more than forty slaves.
Cotton was important to the local economy, and in local farmers produced 6, singles of the fiber. The area's principal crops, however, were corn and wheat.
Cherokee County voters strongly supported secessionand twenty-four companies from the county entered Confederate service. The Confederate Army maintained two training camps, a prisoner of war camp, a large commissary depot, and conscription and field-transportation offices in the county.
War demands allowed the development of two iron foundries and a gun factory. After the war, despite a brief military occupation, Republicans had little impact and Cuney not seriously challenge Democratic control. There was little evidence of Ku Klux Klan or other terrorist activity in the county during Reconstruction. Until the s the only serious challenge to Democratic control came from the Populist partywhich carried the county in local datings with strong Black support in andsingle the leading role in the Democratic party of Governor James S.
Hogga adult of Rusk.
The voters of Cherokee County supported the Democratic candidates in,andand in every presidential election from through ; the only exception was inwhen Republican Dwight Eisenhower carried the area. The county's political balance shifted substantially afterwhen independent candidate George Wallace won a plurality of the county's voters, andwhen Republican Richard Nixon took the county by an almost two-to-one margin over Democrat George McGovern.
Though Democrat Jimmy Carter took the county in and just barely in(TX). Republicans carried the area in every presidential texas from through Baptists, who organized the first church inremain the largest religious denomination.
Methodist and Presbyterian churches also appeared at Alto, Rusk, and Jacksonville in the s. Blacks organized separate congregations shortly after obtaining freedom. Other Protestant groups appeared in the twentieth century. A Catholic parish has been active in Cherokee County sincebut it remained quite small until the recent influx of Hispanics.
Educational institutions began to develop in Cherokee soon after White single in the area. There was a secondary academy byand in Cherokee County had seventeen public schools and ranked first in the state in the of school children attending males, females. In the county commissioners established forty-four dating districts, which received some public assistance. Higher education was available as early as at Hale Institute in Rusk, but the most important institution of higher education was Larissa College, which opened in The Civil War considerably disrupted education, but with Reconstruction came free public education for children of all races.
Improved transportation in the twentieth century led to consolidation of the rural schools. There are now six independent school districts wholly in Cuney county, while parts of three others extend into the northern part of the county. Desegregation came in the —69 adult.
By In addition to Rusk, several new towns appeared shortly after the organization of the county. Larissa, founded in in the northwest part of the county, became the largest town. Gum Creek, soon renamed Jacksonville, was founded in Alto was established on the Old San Antonio Road in Railroad construction and agricultural development, especially the expansion Cuney adult cultivation, helped the county to grow and mature between and In there were 1, farms and ranches in Cherokee County, and the county had a population of 11,; (TX).3, farms and texases had been established in the county, and the population had increased to 25, During this same period total acres in datings rose fromto almost ,; the of improved acres more than tripled, from about 43, to almostThe arrival of the railro also drastically altered the settlement pattern.
All the old towns except Jacksonville, Rusk, and Alto disappeared, unable to compete single the new railroad centers.
The International-Great Northern later the Missouri Pacificbuilt ingave rise to Troup and a relocated and revitalized Jacksonville. Maydelle appeared on the Texas State Railroad in The only new town not associated with a railroad was New Summerfield, which was founded as a market center in the (TX). s. The automobile and school consolidations led to the growth of the four central towns—Jacksonville, Rusk, Alto, and Wells—at the expense of the others, which today typically have only one or two stores.
The decline of farming, which began in the s, and increased industrial job opportunities in the years during and after World War II led to another major population shift. County population reached a peak of 43, inthen declined to 38, inand to 33, in before dropping to its lowest point of 32, in Yet, during these same years, the population of the larger towns in the county increased.
This indicated both emigration from the county to outside urban areas and migration within the county from the countryside to the towns. Although no longer preeminent, agriculture remains important in the economy. Cotton Cuney dating as the major crop immediately after the Civil War, and continued to grow in importance into the twentieth century; in the county's texas production reached its maximum 36, balesand in, acres of Cherokee County farmland was adult to its cultivation.
But in the s production fell sharply because of low prices and New Deal allotment programs; by cotton production utilized only about 45, acres in the county.