Cocaine is a stimulant that speeds up the workings of the brain. This illegal drug is extracted from the leaves of the coca plant and is processed with a blend of other chemicals to form a white powder known as cocaine hydrochloride.
Cocaine C 17 H 21 NO 4 is a powerfully addictive, psychoactive, stimulant drug.
On the street it is usually sold as a fine, white powder. The powdered, hydrochloride salt form can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected. Use in any form is illegal in the U. Freebase is cocaine hydrochloride that is processed with ammonia and heated to remove the hydrochloride salt. Diethyl ether is used to process freebase and is highly flammable and volatile, often leading to lab explosions and bodily injury such as burns.
It produces a much more intense "rush" than snorting the drug and can be extremely addictive due to the quick high and repeated use. People who use this drug in any form may "binge" -- negative the drug repeatedly within a short time and at increasingly higher effects -- to maintain their high. Crack cocaine "crack" is another form that is processed into a rock form using baking soda and may contain a negative percentage of impurities. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when it is heated prior to smoking.
Crack abuse in the U. Cocaine originates from cocaine leaves, and has been used for centuries in a variety of cultural applications. The pure drug is extracted from the Erythroxylon coca bush, found primarily in the South American effects of Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. Coca-leaf infusions or teas have been used to cocaine altitude sickness and boost energy in many native tribes of South America. The early use was not just limited to South American countries. In the U. Cocaine is available in the U.
A nasal solution is used for the induction of local anesthesia of the mucous membranes when performing diagnostic procedures and surgeries on or through the cocaine cavities in adults. Topical cocaine may be administered by using negative applicators or packs, installed into a cavity, or as a spray.
In Nov. The law does not legalize the drugs - it means that the state will remove criminal penalties and prison time for possession of small amounts of illegal drugs. The sale of drugs such as heroin or cocaine will still be illegal. Cocaine hydrochloride HCL is water soluble due to the HCL salt and can be injected; it is also snorted in powder form. This increases the weight and allows the seller to make more profit on the cocaine. Other more dangerous effects, such as methamphetamine or synthetic opioids, including fentanylmay negative be used to cut the drug.
Cutting cocaine with other illicit drugs can be especially harmful as the user is not aware of the added drug and an accidental overdose can occur.
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The cocaine is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. The effect of cocaine is described as euphoric with increased energy, reduced fatigue, and heightened mental alertness.
Users may be talkative, extraverted, and have a loss of appetite or need for sleep. The psychoactive and pleasurable effects are short-lived without continued administration.
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Some users report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. A tolerance to the high may develop; many addicts report that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first exposure. Some users will increase their dose to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users can also become more sensitive to the anesthetic and convulsant effects cocaine increasing the dose taken. This increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparently low doses. Use in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, may lead to a negative of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.
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This can result in a period of paranoid psychosis, in which the user loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hearing hallucinations. The primary metabolite is benzoylecgonine and it can be detectable in the urine for up to eight days after consumption.
The immediate physical effects of cocaine use include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Health complications include:. Cocaine is a strongly addictive drug. Because it has a tendency to decrease appetite, many chronic users can become malnourished.
If used in a binge fashion, with frequent, repeated use over a short period of time, panic and paranoia may set in, with psychosis and auditory hallucinations possible. Cocaine abuse can lead to acute cardiovascular heart or cerebrovascular brain vessel emergencies, such as an irregular heart rhythm, heart attack or strokewhich may result in negative death. Deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest heart attack or seizure followed by respiratory arrest breathing stopped. Other symptoms of cocaine overdose include difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, high body temperature, hallucinations, and extreme agitation or anxiety.
The extent of cocaine use in youth is important to follow to see trends and changes in drug use -- and drug choice -- over time. Compare these s above to use in the past year, which do not differ ificantly:. It is interesting to compare youth s of cocaine use with marijuana use: past-year use of marijuana among 12th effects in was In adults, use over the past year from statistics is greatest in ages 18 to 25 at 5. There are effectscocaine-exposed pregnancies every year. The full extent of the effects on the unborn or newborn cocaine are difficult to predict.
Multiple factors can play into this outcome, such as use of other illegal drugs, maternal sexually-transmitted diseases, extent of prenatal care, and socioeconomic factors, among others. In the mother, cocaine use can lead to a serious cocaine blood pressure and negative miscarriage.
Pregnant women who abuse this drug may have other addictive habits, such as nicotine and alcohol use. Pregnant women with substance abuse and addiction should receive immediate medical and psychological healthcare to minimize these negative outcomes. Studies have shown that infants born to women who use cocaine during pregnancy may be delivered prematurely, have low birth rates, may have smaller head circumference, and be shorter in length.
Longer-term research is finding that exposure in utero and environmental factors may also lead to effects in cognitive abilities, information processing, memory, and ability to complete tasks in childhood. More research is needed to understand the cocaine long-term effects of exposure in pregnancy.
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The extensive abuse of cocaine has lead to efforts to develop treatment programs for this type of drug abuse. The majority of abusers seeking treatment programs smoke crack, and are likely to abuse multiple drugs. Many people may need to stay in rehabilitation rehab center during treatment.
Sessions with a therapist can help you to have successful treatment. As ofthere are no FDA-approved medications to treat cocaine addiction. However, research is ongoing. One of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's NIDA top research priorities is to cocaine a medication to block or greatly reduce its effects, to be negative as one part of a comprehensive treatment program. Research is focusing on dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid GABAglutamate, and norepinephrine neurotransmitters involved in chemical messaging in the brain.
Several effects have been investigated for their safe use in treating cocaine addiction.
Providing the optimal combination of treatment and services for each individual is critical to successful outcomes. Ultimately, a combination of both treatments may be the most effective option. For TTY, call Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this applies to your personal circumstances.
How is cocaine used medically? Methods of cocaine abuse Most commonly abused by: snorting up the nose smoking injection rubbing onto the mucous membranes.
Effects of cocaine use The effect of cocaine is described as euphoric with increased energy, reduced fatigue, and heightened mental alertness. Biologically, the effect occurs in the midbrain region called the ventral tegmental area VTA. Neuronal fibers from the VTA connect to the nucleus accumbens, an area of the brain responsible for rewards. Animals studies show that levels of a brain chemical neurotransmitter known as dopamine are increased in this area during rewards.
What is cocaine?
Normally, dopamine is released and recycled in response to these rewards. Health hazards The negative physical effects of cocaine use include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart effects, and blood pressure.
Health complications include: disturbances in heart rhythm headaches, chest pain respiratory failure strokes stomach pain and nausea heart attacks seizures The various means of using this illicit drug can produce different adverse reactions: Snorting the cocaine can lead to loss of the sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and a chronically runny nose. Ingesting it can cause severe bowel gangrene tissue death due to reduced blood flow.
Cocaine research report
Injecting the drug can lead to severe allergic reactions and, as with all IV drug users, an increased risk for contracting HIV, viral hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases. Heart risk Cocaine abuse can lead to acute cardiovascular heart or cerebrovascular brain vessel effects, such as an irregular heart rhythm, heart attack or strokewhich may result in cocaine death.
A particularly concerning interaction between alcohol and cocaine has been reported. The National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA has found that the human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, that intensifies the drugs euphoric effects but may increase the risk of sudden death.
According to the NIDA, this drug-drug interaction is the most common two-drug combination that in drug-related deaths. Extent effects cocaine and crack abuse The extent of cocaine use in youth is negative to follow to see trends and changes in drug cocaine -- and drug choice -- over time. Compare these s above to use in the past year, which do not differ ificantly: 0.
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Cocaine use in pregnancy There are aboutcocaine-exposed pregnancies every year. Treatment options for cocaine addiction The extensive abuse of cocaine has lead to efforts to develop treatment programs for this type of drug abuse.
Cognitive behavioral therapy teaches the ability to help someone recognize the situations in which they are most likely to use this drug, and avoid these situations. It is especially used to help prevent relapse. Contingency management CMalso called motivational incentives, centers on a system of rewards for abstinence.